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The ECMO simulator is a screen-based implementation of a much larger, high-fidelity, simulation system  - 'The Modular Simulation Environment' (MSE).


It is intended for those working in the fields of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Perfusion and has been designed for use by single users or small groups in a 'tutorial' setting.


The simulator can be installed on computers running under the 32 or 64 bit versions of the Microsoft 'Windows XP',  'Vista' or 'Windows 7' operating systems. It incorporates various MSE components which include:


A 'virtual' patient consisting of about 20, real-time physiological models which can be adjusted to reproduce a wide variety of clinical states.
A centrifugal pump-based ECMO system.
A hollow-fibre oxygenator.
A physiological monitor.
A ventilator.
A defibrillator.
A data recording system.
An armamentarium of drugs and fluids which can be used to treat the virtual patient
A 'scenario' database which can be used to provide a large variety of relevant clinical data to the trainee.


The system can be used to simulate both veno-venous (VV) and veno-arterial (VA) ECMO.


In VV mode, the system can be used to illustrate the effect of:


Variation in blood flow through the oxygenator.
Variation in gas flow through the oxygenator.
Heating or cooling of the patient.
Changing the position of the drainage cannula.
Insertion of a second drainage cannula.
Changing the size of the return cannula.
Changes in central venous pressure on venous drainage.


In VA mode, the system can be used to illustrate the effects of all of the above together with:


The impact of VA ECMO on systemic blood flow.
Differential hypoxaemia.
Back flow through the system.


The simulation can be remotely-controlled by a supervisor  using a separate application which runs on a second PC, Netbook or PDA. Using this application, the supervisor is able to reproduce a wide variety of ECMO or patient crises including:


Oxygenator failure.
Inlet obstruction.
Outlet obstruction.
Fresh gas disconnection.
Massive blood loss.
Changes in lung function.
Changes in cardiac function.


In all, the system comprises about 30 separate models which execute synchronously.The architecture and behaviour of some of the more significant models is outlined in the 'Models' section of this manual.